Currently the MoS&T works through its three main wings:
- Department of Science & Technology (DST)
- Department of Biotechnology (DBT)
- Department of Scientific & Industrial Research (DSIR)/Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR)
In 2006, the Ministry of Earth Sciences was born out of the Department of Ocean Development which was earlier under DST Ministry and all earth science activities were brought under this.
While the Department of Science & Technology (DST) is the nodal department for organising, coordinating and promoting Science & Technology (S&T) activities in the country and for expanding horizons of S&T by promoting new areas in the field, the Department of Biotechnology (DBT) is the nodal agency supporting research and its applications in the Life Sciences and promotes & accelerates the pace of development and large scale use of biotechnology in the country. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research(DSIR)/ Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) on the other handis responsible for carrying out activities relating to indigenous technology promotion, development, utilization and transfer. It promotes R&D by the industries, supports a larger cross section of small and medium industrial units to develop state-of-the art, globally competitive technologies of high commercial potential.
Department of Science & Technology (DST)
DST established in 1971 formulates policies relating to S&T, handles matters relating to the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Cabinet (SACC) and promotes new areas of S&T with special emphasis on emerging areas through R&D in its research institutions or laboratories. It co-ordinates and integrates areas of S&T having cross-sectoral linkages in which a number of institutions and departments have interest and capabilities, undertakes or sponsors scientific and technological surveys, research design and development, wherever necessary undertakes work on futurology and provides support and Grants-in-aid to Scientific Research Institutions, Scientific Associations and Bodies.
Department of Biotechnology (DBT)
The DBT set up in 1986 creates an impetus for the development of the field of modern biology and biotechnology in India. In more than a decade of its existence, the department has promoted and accelerated the pace of development of biotechnology in the country. The department has ensured a clear visible impact of this field through several R&D projects as well as demonstrations and creation of infrastructural facilities.
Department of Scientific & Industrial Research (DSIR)
The Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR) announced through a Presidential Notification, in 1985 is mandated to carry out the activities relating to indigenous technology promotion, development, utilization and transfer. The CSIR is an autonomous body of the DSIR known for their cutting edge R&D knowledgebase in diverse S&T areas ranging from chemical biology to geological sciences. With its contingent of 44 laboratories spanning all over India, outreach centres and Innovation Complexes, CSIR drives the pursuance of science and technology for global impact, promotes technology that enables innovation driven industry and nurtures trans-disciplinary leadership. It is the Pioneer of India’s intellectual property movement.